Mexican Avocado and its varieties
Mexican avocado is a fruit rich in protein with 10% to 20% oil content. It came from a leafy and evergreen tree with one of the most nutritious edible fruits. Its name comes from the Nahuatl, called "ahuacatl" which means "testicles of the tree". The tree grows up 20 meters but the crops are maintained up to 5 meters.
The oldest evidence was founded in a cavern located in Coxcatlán, Puebla, Mexico that date 10.000 years BC. The ancient cultures had the accurate knowledge of the different varieties of avocados such as: “aoacatl” known as Persea americana var. drymifolia (Mexican race), “tlacacolaocatl” known as Persea americana var. americana (Antillana race) and “quilaoacatl” also known as Persea americana var. guatemalensis (Guatemalteca race).
During the colony time the Spaniards introduced the avocado to the other American’s and Europe’s countries. After the 19th and at beginning of the present century avocado consumption was based on the Mexican and West Indian seedlings race, afterwards with the adoption of propagation techniques like grafting and with the discovery of ‘Fuerte’ avocado, started the first uniform orchard that were grafted on Mexican seedlings race. During the 50, 60 and 70’s national avocado growers began to producers Fuerte, Bacon, Rincon, Zutano and Mexican race.
Until 1963 in Michoacan State settled down the first commercial nurseries with the Hass variety with a potential of production of 18 to 20 thousand plants with certified budwood originate from Santa Paula California USA. This way is how it began the establishment of the first commercial orchards with this variety starting with a great expansion and then change in the national market instead of ‘Fuerte’ and Creole varieties. With the surface increasing with the ‘Hass’ variety.
The HASS variety is particularly important due to their high commercialization and popularity on international markets for the following reasons:
Excellent quality of its pulp, small avocado pit and high oil content.
Resistance to post-harvest handling and transportation.
Long flowering period, does not mature until harvest, which allows growers to plan their harvest according to market conditions.
It is the variety that was best adopted in terms of early development and resistance to pests and diseases. This variety was obtained in La Habra, Heights, when it is mature, its skin acquires a dark, almost black tone. Their skin turns from dark green to purplish green. It has a great nutty and hazelnut flavor, with a smooth-creamy texture and a small to medium seed and is available throughout the year.
Avocado producing States in Mexico
Municipalities producers of avocado in the Michoacan State
1. Acuitzio 8. Hidalgo 15. Morelia 2. Apatzingán 9. Huiramba 16. Morelos 3. Ario 10. Irimbo 17. Nuevo Urecho 4. Charapan 11.Jiménez 18.Parácuaro 5. Charo 12. Los Reyes 19. Pátzcuaro 6. Cotija De La Paz 13. Madero 20. Peribán 7. Erongarícuaro 14. Nuevo Parangaricutiro 21. Purépero 22. Quiroga 29. Tingambato 36. Uruapan 23. Salvador Escalante 30. Tingüindin 37. Zacapu 24. Tacámbaro 31. Tlazazalca 38. Ziracuarétiro 25. Tancítaro 32. Tocumbo 39. Zitácuaro 26. Tangamandapio 33. Turicato 27. Tangacícuaro 34. Tuxpan 28. Taretan 35. Tzintzuntzan
Mexico is the main supplier of avocado internationally. It exports 45.95% of the value of the world exports. Mainly exports to Guatemala (100%),El Salvador (90.23%), US (91.32%), Canada (95.41%), and Japan (92.72%). (SAGARPA figures). Also exports to other countries such as: Spain, France, Netherland, China, etc.
According to SAGARPA (Agriculture Secretariat), Mexico export 3 form 10 avocado tons that are produce in the world. The state of Michoacan contributes with the 85.9% of the exports, so Michoacan contributes with 8 from 10 avocados that are produce in mexico, being the leader producer state in Mexico. Other states that follow with the highest avocado production are: State of Mexico, Jalisco, Nayarit and Morelos, generating the 95% of the national production.
Types of Mexican avocado:
HASS: It has rough and dark green skin, when it matures it turns purple.
BACON: It is one of the most popular and consumed, it has a fine skin and a creamy texture. It is the ideal to make an exquisite guacamoles.
ZUTANO: its skin is very shiny and fine, its texture is very soft with little flavor.
FUERTE: its size is greater than the others, it is harvested from autumn to spring. Although, it is the opposite of its name, because it matures quickly it should be cooked as soon as possible.
REED: you can quickly distinguish it from the others because its shape is round, its skin is light green and easy to remove.
PINKERTON: its the longest, with a pretty thick leather. its pulp is creamy
LAMB HASS: It is something similar to the HASS, only it is wider and black in color.
NABAL: it has a hard peel and adhered to its pulp
CRIOLLO: It grows naturally without being a hybrid or graft. its skin is so thin that it can be eaten, as it will be difficult to peel it. Its flavor is similar to anise and its consistency is creamy.
La Senasica reported that over 60 countries in the world are producers of at least 500 varieties of avocado, the field of Mexico is the generator of the three varieties most appreciated by consumers: Hass, Criollo and Fuerte.
According to CEDRSSA, avocado is the most exported crop in the country, after tomato, and the fifth by production volume.